🔥 Arkansas Constitution - Ballotpedia

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Amendment 44, which allowed the government to nullify Federal integration laws. Overturned on by a Federal court, a.


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School tax – Budget – Approval of tax rate (Const., Art. 14, § 3, as amended by propose any law and ten per cent may propose a constitutional amendment by.


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Pursuant to Article 19, Section 22, of the Arkansas Constitution, the 91st General Assembly refers the following constitutional amendment to a vote of the people.


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Article 20, added by Amendment 1, prohibits the General Assembly from making appropriations for payment of principal.


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Tenure of officers elected. Appropriation for expenses of election. Salaries of officers. AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION OF ARKANSAS OF


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Pursuant to Article 19, Section 22, of the Arkansas Constitution, the 91st General Assembly refers the following constitutional amendment to a vote of the people.


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Amendment 59 was an amendment to the Arkansas Constitution, opinion called it “the Godzilla of constitutional amendments”—and for its.


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Tenure of officers elected. Appropriation for expenses of election. Salaries of officers. AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION OF ARKANSAS OF


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School tax – Budget – Approval of tax rate (Const., Art. 14, § 3, as amended by propose any law and ten per cent may propose a constitutional amendment by.


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School tax – Budget – Approval of tax rate (Const., Art. 14, § 3, as amended by propose any law and ten per cent may propose a constitutional amendment by.


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It meant that through the state school-aid formula, Pulaski, Washington, and other counties whose assessments averaged close to twenty percent were subsidizing school operations in areas of the state that were under-assessing their property. Gender — Female Male.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} Public Service Commission v. Three subsequent constitutional amendments dealing with personal and real property assessments and school finance—Amendment 71 in , Amendment 74 in , and Amendment 79 in —supplanted the provisions of Amendment For additional information: Clark v. Track your borrowing. Volunteers Donors. Lesson Plans. The first time you log in to our catalog you will need to create an account. Nominate an Entry Review Entries. Public utilities, railroads , and other commercial carriers had the document amended to avoid higher taxes on equipment and other personal property. Go Back. Become a Volunteer Involve Students. Entries All Entries Amendment Amendment 59 aka: Taxation Amendment Amendment 59 was an amendment to the Arkansas Constitution , ratified by voters overwhelmingly in , that overhauled the system of valuing and taxing private property. Hobby farmers, who leased their farmland to commercial operators, wanted an amendment shifting some of the tax burden to the farm operators. Related Entries Modern Era, through the Present. School districts with weak property bases would get relatively more state aid per child than wealthier ones, as the constitution required equal school opportunities for children wherever they lived. A lawsuit in over the valuation of property triggered a stampede in the legislature to change the provisions for valuing and taxing property in Article 16 of the constitution, which said all property in the state had to be valued for tax purposes uniformly. The effect of Amendment 59 was felt most strongly in growing communities, where the schools, cities, and counties did not realize the normal tax growth from new property going on the tax rolls each year. The state argued that the statewide reappraisals ordered by the courts and Amendment 59 together would solve the problems of unequal educational opportunities, but the Supreme Court held that the reappraisals and millage adjustments under Amendment 59 would not bring about uniform funding and that the state would have to take further steps to see that funding by the state and local property taxes was equal and sufficient. Suggest a Topic or Author Suggest Media. Alma School District No. Type Thing. Get Involved. Union Pacific Railroad , the court ruled that Amendment 59 exempted the railroad from certain property taxes. The proposal was amended to provide for the assessment of those lands and commercial property based upon their productivity, not their market worth. Spreading your gift out through monthly contributions is a great solution for your budget and ours. Other Online Encyclopedias Other Resources. Your monthly donation provides ongoing and predictable support we can count on to fund educational and cultural programming for the patrons, communities, and neighborhoods being served by CALS. Rate and review titles you borrow and share your opinions on them. Periodic lawsuits, notably DuPree and Lake View , challenged the distributions as being insufficient to overcome the unconstitutional inequalities. View All Services. Confusion over how the amendment should be interpreted and applied produced several lawsuits. The amendment and its various interpretations had a major role in the long legislative and judicial battles over school reform and tax reform as with the court cases Jim DuPree v. Get personalized recommendations. Time Period Modern Era - the Present. The county equalization board, which believed it was appraising property for tax purposes according to its real value while much of the rest of the state was assessing property at far lower values, asked the state Public Service Commission, which also served as the state equalization board, to study the inequities and order a statewide property reappraisal. As the legislative session progressed, however, one group after another sought additional protections through the amendment. By the end of the legislative session, the proposal had lengthened to 2, words. Baffling sentences spelling out the procedures that were to be followed often exceeded words. The lawsuit, which became known as Public Service Commission v. Creating an account gives you access to all these features. Soon after the legislative session, the Supreme Court upheld Judge Wood and said the vast differentials in county assessment methods violated the constitution, and he ordered the reappraisals to begin in The only significant opposition came from the Arkansas Education Association and the editorial page of the Arkansas Gazette , both of which said it would prove calamitous for the schools. Amendment 59 and the court decisions on property valuation that spawned it were at the center of the landmark case on school-finance reform, DuPree v. In one, Clark v. Login to the CALS catalog! The Gazette said that protections from massive tax increases could be achieved by lowering the uniform state assessment ratio of twenty percent and then gradually adjusting it to make it uniform and by allowing local governments to make tax-rate adjustments. There could not be one method of valuing one type of property and another method for another type. Leave your legacy with a planned gift that can help ensure quality materials, programming, and services for our libraries. The commission granted the request for a statewide reappraisal of property. Relying on the research of its Assessment Coordination Division, the commission concluded that the inequities were exorbitant—some counties were assessing property for tax purposes at less than three percent of its value while Pulaski and Washington counties were assessing property at more than twenty percent of its value. When a tribute gift is given the honoree will receive a letter acknowledging your generosity and a bookplate will be placed in a book. The court reconsidered the case and altered its opinion. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Amendment 59 was an amendment to the Arkansas Constitution , ratified by voters overwhelmingly in , that overhauled the system of valuing and taxing private property. That became the heart of Amendment 59, which the legislature referred to the election ballot. Its decision was appealed to the Pulaski County Circuit Court, and, after a trial, Judge Warren Wood upheld the commission and ordered the statewide reappraisal, which was to be undertaken fifteen counties a year for six years starting in The decision caused political panic. The remedy that he and legislators came up with was to amend the constitution and roll back millage rates for schools and local governments to offset the huge increases in property assessments that would follow the reappraisals in each county. Honor or memorial gifts are an everlasting way to pay tribute to someone who has touched your life. Pulaski County Board of Equalization, Ark. It would take many years after the reappraisals for tax growth to normalize. The sponsors said it was too late and that the legislature could fix any problems after voters ratified the amendment. Bill Clinton , the Democratic nominee for governor , said it would be a catastrophe and promised to take steps as governor to soften the impact. If you would like to make a donation by check, print this donation form , fill it out and mail it with your check to:. Entries Media All. Read our Privacy Policy. Union Pacific Railroad, Ark. It was the child of fear and greed. Fill out my online form.